19041 19041 Time flies, It's actually almost twenty years ago when I wanted to reframe the way we use information, the way we work together, I (??) it the World Wide Web. 29116 29116 Now, twenty years on, TED, I want to ask your help in a new reframement. 36223 36223 So going back to 1989, I wrote a memo suggesting global hypertext system. 44701 44701 Nobody really did anything with it very much. 47822 47822 But eighteen months later - this is, you know, this is how innovation happens, eighteen months later my boss said I could do it on-on a side, as a sort of a play(?) project, ehr, (??) on the computer we'd got. 59507 59507 And so he gave me the time to code it up. 62413 62413 So, I basically roughed out what HTML looks like, the hypertext protocol, HTTP, the idea if URLs, these names for things which sorted(?) HTTP. 75334 75334 I wrote the code, and put it out there. 78001 78001 Why did I do it? Well, it was basically frustration. 81221 81221 I was frustrated with- I was in this- I was working as a software engineer in this huge very exciting lab. Lots of people coming from all over the world. 89999 89999 They (??) all sorts of different communities(?) with them, they had all sort of different data formats, all sorts of kinds of documentation systems. 98111 98111 So that, in all that diversity, if I wanted to figure out how to build something out of one little bit of this and a bit of this, everything I looked into, I had to connect to some new machine, I had to learn to run some new program. 111096 111096 I had to- I would find the data may be, the information I wanted, in some new data format and they were all com- incompatible. 117707 117707 It was just very frustrating, the frustration was on this- all this unlocked potential. 121912 121912 In fact on all these disks, there were documents. 124689 124689 So, if you just imagine they all being part of some big virtual documentation system in the sky, then- say, on the internet, then life would be so much easier. 136990 136990 Well, once you have an idea like that, it kinds of gets under your skin, and even if people don't read your memo (actually he did, it was found after he died, his copy, it was found and he'd written "vague but exciting" in pencil in the corner). 149203 149203 But in general, it was difficult to exp- it's really difficult to explain what the Web was like, you don't- it's difficult to explain to people now, that(?) it was difficult then. 158477 158477 But then, OK, when TED started, there was no Web. 161770 161770 So we- things like clicked in(?) have(?) the same meaning. 164669 164669 I could show somebody a piece of hypertext, a page which has got some links, and we click on a link and *bing*, there will be another hypertext page. 172243 172243 Not impressive, you know, we've seen that, we've got things on the hypertext on CD-ROMs. 178148 178148 What was difficult was to get them to imagine. So imagine that that link could have gone to virtually any document you could imagine. 186800 186800 All right? That is the- that is the leap that was very difficult for people to make. Well, some people did. 193056 193056 So yes, it was difficult to explain, but it was a grassroots movement. 196718 196718 And that is what made it has made it most of- most fun. That was the most exciting thing, not the technology, not the things people'd done with it, but actually the community, the spirit of all these people getting together, sending e-mails. 208887 208887 That's what it was like, then. Do you know what, it's funny but right now it's kind of like that again. 214029 214029 I asked everybody more or less to put their documents, say "Could you put your documents on this Web thing." 220000 220000 And you did, thanks. 223512 223512 It were- it's been a blast, hasn't it. I mean, it's- it's been quite interesting because we found out that the things that happened with the Web really blew(?) us away. They're much more than we'd eventually(?) imagined, when we put together the little web- you know, the initial website that we started off with. 236844 236844 Now, I want you to put your data on the Web. 240018 240018 Turns out that there is still huge unlocked potential. There is still a huge frustration that people have because we haven't got data on the Web as data. 250825 250825 What do you mean, "data", what's the difference, documents, data? 253339 253339 Well documents you read, OK? 255630 255630 More or less, you can read them, you can put a link from them and that's it. 258469 258469 Data, you can do all kinds of stuffs with the computer. 260976 260976 Who was here or, don't know, has seen Hans Rosling's talk. 266755 266755 When Hans Rosling was at Ted, yeah, one of the- great, yes, a lot of people has seen it, cause it was one of the greatest Ted's talks. 272399 272399 Hans put up this presentation in which he shows, for various different countries in various different colours, he shows income level on one axis and he showed infant mortality, and he showed this thing animated from time. 285854 285854 So he'd taken this data, made a presentation which just shattered a lot of myths that people have about the economics in the developing world. 296448 296448 He put up a slide a little bit like this. 299064 299064 It had underground all the data. 300841 300841 OK, data is brown and boxy and boring and all that(?), that's what we think of it, isn't it, data? 305836 305836 Cause data you can't naturally use by itself. 308745 308745 But in fact data drives a huge amount of what happens in our lives. It happens because somebody takes that data and does something with it. In this case Hans, he could put the data together, he found from all kinds of United Nation websites and things. 322614 322614 He put it together, combined it into something more interesting than the original pieces. 327723 327723 And then he put it into this software, which I think is Sun developed originally, and produces this wonderful presentation. 337956 337956 And Hans made a point of saying it's really important to have a lot of data, and I'm happy to see, the party last night, that he was still saying very forcibly, it's really important to have a lot of data. 350732 350732 So I want us now to think about, not just two pieces of data being connected, or six like he did, but I want to think of about a world where everybody has put data on the Web, and so virtually anything you could imagine is on the Web, and I'm calling that Linked Data. 364821 364821 The technology is Linked Data, and it's extremely simple. 367777 367777 If you want to put something on the Web, there are three rules. 370544 370544 First thing is, that those HTTP names, those things that start with "http:", we're using them not just for documents, now we're using them for things that the documents are about. We're using them for people, we're using them for places. We're using them for your products. We're using them for events. All kinds of conceptual things they star- they have names now, that start with "http". 392503 392503 Second rule: when- if I take one of these "http" names and I look it up, I go and do the Web thing with it, I fetch the data using the HTTP protocol from the Web, I will get back some data in a standard format which is kind of useful data somebody might like to know about that thing, about that event, who's at the event, whatever it is about that person, where they were born, things like that. 415584 415584 So, second rule is: I get important information back. 418185 418185 Third rule is that when I get back this information, it's not just got somebody's height and weight and when they were born, it's got relationships. 426838 426838 Data is relationships. Interestingly, data is relationships. 430482 430482 It's got this person was born in Berlin, Berlin is in Germany, and when it has relationships, whatever expresses this relationship, then the other thing that it's related to is given a na- one of those names that starts "http". 444444 444444 So I can go ahead and look that thing out. So I look up a Person, I can look up then the city where they were born, then I can look up the region it's in, and the town it's in and the population of it, and so on, so I can browse this stuff. 456219 456219 So that's it really. That is Linked Data. 460849 460849 I wrote an article entitled "Linked Data" a couple of years ago, and soon after that, things started to happen. 468655 468655 The idea of Linked Data is that we get lots an lots and lots of these boxes that Hans had, and we get lots and lots and lots of things sprouting. 477036 477036 It's not just an whole lot of other plants, it's not just a root supplying a plant. 481917 481917 But for each of those plants, whatever it is, a presentation, an analysis, somebody's looking for patterns in the data, they get to look at all the data and they get it connected together, and the really important thing about data is that the more things you have to connect together, the more powerful it is. 496654 496654 So, Linked Data, the mean went out there. 500680 500680 And pretty soon Chris Bizer at the Freie Universit├Ąt in Berlin was one of the first people to put interesting things up. 507114 507114 He noticed that Wikipedia, you know Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia with lots and lots of interesting documents in it, well in those documents, there are little squares, little boxes and those- in those information boxes, there's data. 520545 520545 So he wrote a program to take the data, extract it from Wikipedia and put it into a blob of linked data on the Web; which he called dbpedia. 529365 529365 Dbpedia is represented by the blue blob in the middle of this slide. 533683 533683 And if you actually go and look at Berlin you'll find that there are other blobs of data which also have stuff about Berlin and they are linked together. 540386 540386 So if you pull the data from dbpedia about Berlin, you'll end up pulling up these other things as well. And the exciting thing is: it's starting to grow. 548397 548397 This is just a grassroots stuff again, OK? 550722 550722 Now let's thing about data (??). 553496 553496 Data comes in fact in lots and lots of different forms. 556814 556814 Think of the diversity of the Web. It's a really important thing that the Web allows you to put all kinds of data up there. 562265 562265 So it is with data. I can talk about all kinds of data. 565038 565038 We can talk about government data, enterprise data is really important. 569976 569976 There's scientific data, there's personal data. 572681 572681 There's weather data, there's data about events. 574880 574880 There's data about talks, and there's news, and there's all kinds of stuff. 578811 578811 I'm just going to mention a few of them, so that you get the idea of the diversity of it, so that you also see how much unlocked potential. 587205 587205 Let's start with government data. 588292 588292 Barak Obama said in a speech that he- the American government data would be available on the internet in accessible formats. 598065 598065 And I hope that they will put it out as linked data. 600904 600904 That's important. 602362 602362 Why is it important? Not just for transparency. Yes, transparency in government's important. 605963 605963 But that data, this is the data from all the government departments. Think about how much of that data is about how life is lived in America. It's actually useful, it's got value. I can use it in my company. 616416 616416 I could use it as a kid to do my homework. 618328 618328 So we're talking about making the place, making the world run better by making this data available. 625059 625059 In fact if you're responsible, if you know about some data in a government department, often you find that these people, they're very tempted to keep it, to (??) in database hugging. 636117 636117 You hug your database, you don't want to let it go until you've made a beautiful website for it. 640856 640856 Well I'd like to suggest that rath- before you- yes, make a beautiful website (who am I to say "don't make a beautiful website"). 646963 646963 Make a beautiful website, but first, give us the unadulterated data. We want the data. 653293 653293 We want unadulterated data. OK. 656050 656050 We have to ask for raw data now, and I'm gonna ask you to practice that, OK? 661280 661280 Can you say "raw"? 663635 663635 Can you say "data"? 665136 665136 Can you say "now"? 666544 666544 Right: "raw data now". 670979 670979 Practice that, it's important, because you have no idea the number of excuses people come up with to hang on to their data, and not give it to you, even though you've paid for it as a taxpayer. 681149 681149 And it's not just America, it's all over the world. 683314 683314 That is not just not just governments, of course it's enterprises as well. 686421 686421 So I'm just going to mention a few other sources of data. 689384 689384 Well here we are, Ted, and all the time we are very conscious of the huge challenges that human society has right now. 699165 699165 Curing cancer. 700130 700130 Understanding the brain for Alzheimer's. 702561 702561 Understanding economics, making it a little more stable. 705140 705140 Understanding how the world works. 706726 706726 The people who are gonna solve those are scientists, they have hard formed ideas in their head. 711534 711534 They try to communicate of those over the Web, but a lot of the state of knowledge of the human race at the moment is on databases, often sitting in their computers and actually commonly not shared. 723355 723355 In fact, I'm just going to one area: 725925 725925 if you're looking at Alzheimer's for example, drug discovery, there is an whole lot of linked data which is just coming out because scientists in that field realize this is a great way of getting out of those silos. 736331 736331 Because they had that genomic data in one database and in one building. 741503 741503 And they had that protein data in another. Now they are sticking it onto it: Linked data. And now they can ask a question, a question that you probably wouldn't ask, I wouldn't ask, they would: 750856 750856 "What proteins are involved in signal transduction and also are related to pyramidal neurons?" 755779 755779 Well you take that (??) and if you put it to google, of course there is no page on the web which would answer that question because nobody has asked that question before. 763398 763398 You get 223,000 hits: no result you can use. 767309 767309 You ask the Linked Data which they've now put together: 32 hits, each of which is a protein which has these properties, and you can look at. 775336 775336 The power of being able to ask those questions of a scientist, those questions which actually bridge across different disciplines is really a complete (??) change. 784299 784299 It's very very important. Scientists have totally (??) at the moment there(?). 787647 787647 The power of the data that other scientists have collected is locked up and we need to get it unlocked so we tackle those huge problems. 797028 797028 Now, if I go on like this you'll think that all the data comes from huge institutions, and it has nothing to do with you. 803553 803553 But that's not true. 805018 805018 In fact data is about our lives. 807927 807927 You just- you logon to your social networking site, you pick your favourite one, you say "this is my friend", *bing*, relationship, data. 814573 814573 You say "this photograph, oh, it's about- it depicts this person", *bing*, that's data. 819772 819772 Data data data. Everytime you do things in a social networking site, the social networking site is taking data and using it, repurposing it. 826686 826686 And using it to make other people's lives more interesting on the site. 831824 831824 But when you go to another Linked Data site, and you say this one about travel, and you say "I want to sent this photo to all the people in that group", you can't get over the walls. 840624 840624 The Economist wrote an article about it, lots of people blogged about it, tremendous frustration. 844782 844782 The way to break down the silos to get interoperability between social networking sites, we need to do that with Linked Data. 850600 850600 One last type of data I will talk about, may be it's the most exciting, before I came down here I looked up on the OpenStreetMap. 856509 856509 OpenStreetMap is a map, but it's also a wiki. 858430 858430 Zoom in and that's square thing is the theatre which we're in right now, the Terrace Theatre. 862472 862472 It didn't have a name on it. 863659 863659 So I could go in Edit mode, I could select the theatre. 866230 866230 I could add on down the bottom the name. 868566 868566 And then I could save it back, and now if you go back to the openstreetmap.org, and you find this place, you will find that the Terrace Theatre's got a name. 876645 876645 I did that, me. 877897 877897 I did that on the map. 879339 879339 I just did that, I put that up on there and you know what? 881548 881548 If I- the StreetMap is all about everybody doing their bit, and this creates an incredible resource because everybody else does theirs. 891149 891149 And that is what Linked Data is all about. 894005 894005 It's about people doing their bit to produce a little bit, and it all connecting. 900983 900983 That's how Linked Data works. 903634 903634 But you do your bit, everybody else does this. 907636 907636 You may not have lots of data which you have to- yourself to put on there, but you know to demand it, and we've practiced that. 916681 916681 So, Linked Data is this huge. 920461 920461 I've only told you of a very small number of things. 922920 922920 There are data in every aspect of our lives, every aspect of work and pleasure, OK? 928702 928702 And it's not just about the number of places where data comes. 931972 931972 It's about connecting it together, and when you connect data together, you get power in a way that doesn't happen just with the Web, with documents. 939836 939836 You get this really huge power out of it. 944271 944271 So, we're at a stage now where we have to do this. 948803 948803 Those- the people who think it's a great idea. And all the people, and I think there are a lot of people at Ted, who do things, because even though there's not an immediate return on investment, you have- because it will only really pay off when everybody else has done it, they'll do it, because they're the sort of person who just does things which would be good if everybody else did them. 966094 966094 OK? So it's called Linked Data. 968175 968175 I want you to make it. 969574 969574 I want you to demand it. 971531 971531 And I think it's an idea worth spreading. 974122 974122 Thanks.